UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES <p>An official publication of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India)</p> Aligarh Muslim University en-US UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES Artificial Intelligence in Oncology- Technologies being used and scope in India <p>Cancer is a top cause of mortality in the world. Late detection and remissions are the biggest threats facing patients. Early detection of the same and a prediction of the prognosis and recurrence is one of the best chances we have against the fight with the disease. It has been found that artificial intelligence (AI) could be more accurate than even multivariate and statistical analysis which are themselves more accurate than empirical analysis. There has been a recent surge in literature pertaining to the use of machine learning and deep learning models for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. This article comprises a look at the AI technologies being used with respect to three of the most common cancers in the world - breast cancer, lung cancer, and gastric cancer. It also further delves the status of AI for Oncology in developing nations like India and the opportunities and the challenges facing an wide adoption of AI in such nations.</p> Anushka Sharma Shivangi Sharma Mridula Trehan Sunil Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.8 Keys to Open Locked Maxillary Canines: A Review <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The ectopic eruption and impaction of maxillary permanent canines is a commonly encountered clinical problem. When early signs of ectopic eruption of the canines are detected, an attempt should be made to prevent their impaction and its potential sequelae. The proper localization of the impacted tooth plays a vital role in determining the feasibility, proper access for the surgical approach and the proper direction for the orthodontic traction forces.</p> <p>Management of impacted canines may be one of the most challenging problems for orthodontists because of increased numbers and duration of office visits by the patient as well as prolonged duration of treatment time.</p> Mubasshir Ahmed Shaikh Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.9 Post Covid Mucormycosis Of Head And Neck Region: A Systematic Review <p><strong>AIMS &amp; OBJECTIVES</strong>: With the second wave of COVID-19, the Indian mainland has seen a significant increase in mucormycosis infection in COVID-19 patients. The mortality linked with this fungal infection is developing as a matter of attention, as evidenced by numerous case reports/case series and institutional experiences. The goal of this study is to execute a systematic review of the literature to determine the attributes of patients with mucormycosis and COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>METHOD</strong>: We chose keywords to search the online resources of PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from inception to June 20, 2021. We gathered all of the detailed facts from case reports/series of patients with Head and Neck Mucormycosis, as well as COVID-19 reports from around the world. Following that, we looked at the relationship between Post Covid Mucormycosis and Diabetes, Blood Glucose and HbA1c levels, most frequently used corticosteroids in those patients, orbital, oral, sino-nasal, rhino-cerebral clinical features, mean time of onset of mucormycosis, CT, MRI findings, most widely accepted histological test, treatment, type of amphotericin B frequently used, mortality rate, and survival of the patient.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>RESULT</strong>: Mucormycosis has been reported in 214 persons with COVID-19, with the majority of cases coming from India (55.1%), where 149 patients had diabetes (69.6%), with a blood glucose level of 332.2mg/dl and HbA1c level of 10.85 percent. These individuals were often treated with Dexamethasone and Methylprednisolone during Covid infection. Mucormycosis developed on average after 13.5 days. Opthalmoplegia, Ptosis, and Vision Loss were the most prevalent orbital signs. Teeth loosening, necrosis, and black eschar on palate were the most common oral symptoms. Facial discomfort, swelling, numerous pus draining sinuses, headache, and nasal discharge were the most frequent Sino Nasal symptoms. Opacification/thickening of the mucosa of the maxillary, frontal, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal sinuses were the most prevalent CT findings. Fungal brain abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and paranasal sinus mucosal illness were the main significant MRI findings. As far as histological tests concerned, KOH and PAS remain the most often performed ones. Most patients were treated with Liposomal Amphotericin B and surgical debridement. A 39.6% mortality rate and a 65.3% survival rate were recorded.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>The current study compiles a list of all CAM/PCM patients who have been reported worldwide. The majority of the patients were reported from India, and most of them had a history of diabetes mellitus and had been given glucocorticoids to treat COVID-19, necessitating careful administration of this medication during the pandemic.</p> Shashank Narasimhan Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.3 Conservative Management of Plexiform Ameloblastoma: A Case Report. <p>The ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin that exhibits a locally aggressive behaviour with a high level of recurrence, being believed theoretically to come from dental lamina remains, the enamel organ in development, epithelial cover of odontogenic cysts or from the cells of the basal layer of the oral mucosa. Their management can be a contentious issue due to the high risk of recurrence in some histological subtypes. Treatment of ameloblastoma should be conservative as possible, to avoid serious complications resulting from radical surgery. Based on the extent of the lesion and decide on either conservative management in the form of enucleation followed by peripheral ostectomy and chemical cauterisation or resection with safe margins. Considering the benign nature of the tumour and the morbidity after resection, patients, most of whom are in the younger age group, can still be subjected to conservative treatment provided they are followed up for a long period thus assuring them of a better quality of life. We present a case of a 18-year-old girl with an ameloblastoma of her right body and ramus of the mandible. Presentation, surgical work-up and management are discussed.</p> Moumita Sheikh Alangkar Saha Achyut Sinha Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.7 Posterior dislocation of mandibular condyle obliterating the external acoustic meatus- A rare clinical entity <p>Posterior dislocation of mandibular condyle into the external auditory canal is a rare pathology, with very few cases reported in the literature. This report describes a case of partially edentulous elderly male with unilateral dislocation of intact mandibular condyle posteriorly into the external auditory meatus, managed by open reduction and condylectomy. The clinical signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and management are illustrated along with a brief review of the pertinent literature.</p> Mehul Hirani Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.16 A case report on “Ameloblastic carcinoma: A secondary aggressive odontogenic neoplasm” <p>Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare aggressive odontogenic neoplasm which was initially an ameloblastoma or an odontogenic cyst and then undergone malignant transformation. Ameloblastic carcinoma accounts for 2% of all the odontogenic tumors. Identifying a secondary type of Ameloblastic carcinoma with typical histologic features of malignant transformation is difficult to diagnose and remains a rarity. Here we report a case of a male patient of age 85 years with typical clinical findings for ameloblastomic carcinoma with its typical clinical and histopathological features and it’s surgical procedure. This case resembles squamous cell carcinoma of alveolus and osteomyelitis. The diagnosis is based on the detailed history of the patient followed by the clinical findings and suitable radiographs and finally the microscopic evaluation. Wide surgical excision with adjunctive radiation is the treatment of choice. The risk of recurrence is very high and prognosis remains poor</p> Karthika Borra Rakashree Chakraborty Ashmita Chawla Aditya Dupare Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.15 Marsupialization as definitive management of a large dentigerous cyst in an eleven year old boy—A case report <p>Dentigerous cysts are benign odontogenic cysts associated with the crowns of permanent teeth. They rarely cause enlargement and displacement of associated teeth. Here, we present a case of an impacted mandibular second premolar associated with a large dentigerous cyst managed conservatively with a one and half year radiographic follow-up.</p> Bhavna Malik Munish Kumar Vikrant Goth Rishabh Kasrija Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.14 Covid-19 induced avascular necrosis in maxilla - a rare case report <p>COVID-19&nbsp; has emerged as a challenge to the clinicians worldwide. Since the outbreak in December 2019, COVID-19 has affected &gt;11,301,800 people (World Health Organization 2020b). (1) The most common symptoms are fever and dry cough and in few cases shortness of breath, dysosmia, and dysgeusia. Present understanding among researchers shows that coronavirus invades human cells via the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through scRNA-seq data analyses. The prevalence of clinical manifestations is still unknown, the range of COVID-19 manifestations on the oral cavity has been considered of broad. The current case aims to report a rare finding of bone and soft tissue defect in maxilla as a possible sequelae of C0VID-19 infection.</p> Gaurav Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.13 Treatment of Mandibular Body Fracture Using Miniplate Osteosynthesis : A Case Report <p>Fracture of the Mandibular body is the most common facial fracture resulting in hospitalisation of the the patient in northern India. The prime objective of this case study is to inspect and analyse the management plan of Mandibular body fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation coupled with restoration of underlying bony architecture to its pre-injury position in a stable fashion. This study also evaluates outcomes and maintenance of function for 2 bone plating techniques used in the treatment of Mandibular body fractures at K.D Dental College &amp; Hospital Mathura.</p> Sandeep Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.12 A Firearm Injury- A Dramatically Strange Positioned Bullet <p>Firearm injury patterns of the craniomaxillofacial region present a unique, and challenging task for the facial trauma surgeon. The tissue disruption associated with ballistic injury to the head and neck region can be daunting, and the identification of normal anatomic planes which is potentially lost within bleeding and destroyed soft and hard tissues can challenge the skills of even the most experienced facial trauma specialist. Here we report a case in which bullet was radiographically found at a distant location without any wound tract.</p> Neeraj Dhiman Nishtha Chauhan Shweta Kanoujia Aswathi Krishnan Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.11 Necrotizing fasciitis due to odontogenic cause - A case report <p>Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon but highly debilitating lesion extensively involving the fascia spreading at a higher pace. It commonly affects the extremities and genitals, very rarely affecting the cervicofacial region. The underlying cause of most of the cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis is odontogenic in nature with the patient being immunocompromised. This paper deals with an unusual case of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin of a non-immunocompromised individual and the successful surgical management of the lesion.</p> Girdhar Puneet Sri Sudarsan P K Gupta Malvika Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.10 Comparison of Clinical Efficacy and Postoperative Analgesia using 0.75% Ropivacaine, 4% Articaine with Epinephrine and 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine in Orthodontic Extraction of Premolars- A Double-Blind, Randomized Study <p><strong>AIM &amp; OBJECTIVE</strong>- The present study aims to assess and compare the efficacy of 0.75% ropivacaine with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in removal of maxillary and mandibular premolars for orthodontic reasons.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL &amp; METHODS</strong>- The present study was conducted in 150 patients, divided in three equal groups who underwent extraction of maxillary and mandibular premolar simultaneously. For the extraction of maxillary premolars initially buccal infiltration (0.5ml) was given and then palatal infiltration (0.2ml) of same local anesthetic was given only if required after a waiting period of 5 minutes. However, for mandibular premolars inferior alveolar nerve block 1.2ml of local anesthetic solution &amp; 0.5ml for lingual nerve block was given. If the patient complains of pain on objective assessment even after 5 minutes, 0.5ml buccally was given for mandibular tooth.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>- On objective evaluation, onset of action of the anesthetic agent among patients who were given only buccal infiltration for extraction of maxillary premolars, was shortest in Articaine group followed by lidocaine group and then ropivacaine group. However, additional palatal anesthesia was required maximally in lidocaine group, followed by articaine group and then ropivacaine group. The mean time for recovery from complete anesthesia in both maxilla and mandible was shortest in lidocaine group, followed by articaine group and the longest time for ropivacaine group</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>- To conclude, as the onset of 4% articaine with 1:100000 was fastest, earlier tooth extraction could be done in this group and can be considered as an alternative to lidocaine. Ropivacaine being a long acting local anesthetic along with its intrinsic vasoconstriction property, is also recommended for long duration surgical procedures and in medically compromised patients where the use of epinephrine is contraindicated.</p> Sakshi Gupta Tejinder Kaur Ramandeep Singh Bhullar Amit Dhawan Sarika Kapila Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.4 Assessment of the Efficacy of Dental Implants in Medically Compromised Patients: A Prospective control Study with 5 years follow-up. <p>Several systemic diseases (and relative medications) have been reported to impair or in some cases complicate dental im­plant surgery. In broader terms, when dealing with patients suffering from systemic diseases, the monitoring of the medi­cal conditions and &nbsp;related post-operative complications is of great importance in order to avoid risks which could jeopardise the health of the patient. We conducted the prospective study with 100 dental implants divided into 20 each in patient with history and on medication of Diabetes, Hypertension, Cardiac or Thyroid and one control group (healthy). Implant success, Pain, Marginal Bone Resorption, Bite efficacy and RFA unit were recorded for 1<sup>st</sup> week, 3 month, 6 month, 1 year, 3<sup>rd</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> year follow up.&nbsp; Implant success was recorded 98 % in Diabetic , 97% in Thyroid and 100 % in Hypertensive and cardiac patient.&nbsp; We concluded that Implant success is good in patients with medical conditions, but with cautious surgical intervention.</p> Ritesh Garg Neha mishra Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.6 Evidence based dental practice: assessment of knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers among dentists <p>Abstract: Evidence based dentistry means that clinical dental practice should be based upon evidence gathered from scientific studies. Although this concept is encouraged worldwide still a gap exists between understanding of this concept and actual practice. Also due to a large amount of advances in dental practices, it is almost impossible for practitioners to keep track and be aware of all the updates.</p> <p>Aim: To assess knowledge, attitude and barrier towards evidence based dentistry among dentists in Bhavnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 170 dentists in Bhavnagar district using convenience sampling technique. Data was collected using self administered, pretested, validated, close ended, structured questionnaire. Results: Although majority of the studied population were aware and could correctly define EBP, still knowledge towards levels of evidence and terminology used in evidence based practice was lacking in this study. The attitude of dental professionals toward EBP was positive. The barriers in use of EBP include lack of available informational sources, lack of time and lack of application of evidence in dental patients. In addition to this lack of skills to appraise a scientific article was also identified as barrier towards EBP. Conclusion: It was found that significant proportion of respondents had inadequate knowledge of EBP; therefore, formal training and reinforcement are required.</p> Updesh Masih Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.5 Prepared or Scared? Awareness of dental practitioners about n COVID-19 <p><strong>Background:</strong> nCOVID 19 outbreak has taken the world by storm. Dental practitioners being one of the high risk professionals should be aware about corona and accordingly adopt better clinical practices.</p> <p>O<strong>bjectives:</strong> To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of dental practitioners about nCOVID-19 in their clinical set ups.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted among dental practitioners of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula (tricity), India. Ethical clearance was obtained from ethical board of Riyat and Bahra Dental College and Hospital. Consent was taken from study participants. Demographic data recorded gender, qualification, type of practice, years into practice and common information source of n-COVID. A 23 itemed self administered questionnaire was prepared on Google form and sent to registered mobile number (whats app).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 281 responses were obtained. Descriptive statistics was done. &nbsp;P value &lt;- 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 7.85, 5.61 and 5.12 respectively. Mann Whitney and Wilcoxan test showed significant association between mean knowledge scores and qualification (P=0.020)(BDS, MDS) and between mean knowledge scores and &nbsp;years into practice (Kruskal Wallis) (p=0.007). Spearman correlation coefficient showed no significant association between mean knowledge, attitude and practices scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental practitioners demonstrated average knowledge about nCOVID-19 and application of this knowledge in clinical set up. However they had positive attitude and showed positive practices in their clinical set ups. They should be further trained and prepared to handle such emergency COVID scenario in their clinical set up.</p> Poonam sood Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 1 2 10.52977/ujmfs.2021.1.2.2