Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis – Our Experience


  • Sonia Singhvi Al-badar Dental College & Hospital
  • Aaisha Siddiqua
  • . Neelakamal Hallur Hallur
  • Chaitanya Kothari
  • Shereen Fatima
  • Syed Zakaullah


ankylosis, temporomandibular joint, temporalis fascia flap


 In this retrospective study, we discuss our experience in the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis cases. The goal of management is to provide adequate mouth opening with restoration of function, growth and prevention of recurrence & worsening of facial deformity. TMJ ankylosis presents a challenge due to its proximity to vital structures which could lead to intraoperative and/or postoperative complications. Further, the chances of reankylosis have to be reduced with the use of interpositional graft and aggressive physiotherapy. The operative protocol we followed for TMJ ankylosis was aggressive resection of ankylotic mass, bilateral coronoidectomy followed by temporalis fascia as interpositional graft material. Active physiotherapy was initiated in the early postoperative period. The results were highly satisfactory with no incidence of reankylosis in the follow up period of up to 4 years.



Adil Al-Kayat and Paul Bramley. A modified pre-auricular approach to the temporomandibular joint and malar arch. British Journal of Oral Surgery 17, 91-103(1979-80)

A. Punnia Moorthy and L. D. Finch. “Interpositional arthroplasty for ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint,” Oral Surgery Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 545–552, (1983)

Leonardo.B. Kaban et al A protocol for management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 48: 1145–1151, (1990)

Su-Gwan Kim. Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis with temporalis muscle and fascia flap. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg 30:189–193, (2001)

Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak et al. Management of temporomandibular ankylosis – compromise or individualization: A literature review.: Med Sci Monit.;17(5):RA111(2011)

Nigel. R. Figueiredo et al. Fibrous Ankylosis of the Temporomandibular Joint in a Young Child. J Dent Child (Chic). 82(2):108-11, (2015)

M Khan, MW Ibrahim. Functional rehabilitation by gap arthroplasty in temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Pak Armed Forces Med J; 52(2): 174-8(2002)

Ankita Raj, Amrita Raj, Amit Pandey, Saket Nigam, Shailendra S. Chauhan. J. Evol. Med. Dent. Sci. 3(16):4155-60 (2014)

Suday G. Rajurkar et al. Use of Temporalis Fascia Flap in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Clinical Audit of 5 Years. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 44: e108, (2015)

Daniel M Laskin. Role of the meniscus in the etiology of posttraumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Int J Oral Surg; 7:34 ,0 5 (1978)

Hizuru Miyamoto et al. The effect of an intra articular bone fragment in the genesis of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 29:290 5 (2000)

Hossein Behnia et al. Comprehensive Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis — State of the Art A textbook of advanced oral and maxillofacial surgery. 22;2: 2411(2015)

L Manganello-Souza, P Mariani. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis: Report of 14 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg..;32(1):24-9(2003)

M.M.El-Sheikh et al. Bird face deformity secondary to bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis. J Craniomaxillofac Surg.;24(2): 96-103(1996)

S.A. Metwalli. Computerized tomography of the temporal bone in TMJ ankylosis. MSc Thesis, Cairo University, 1993; pp. 20-36

IE El-Hakim and SA Metwalli. Imaging of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. A new radiographic classification. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 1;31(1):19-23. (2002)

Anil K. Danda. Comparison of Gap Arthroplasty with and Without a Temporalis Muscle Flap for the Treatment of Ankylosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1425-1431, (2009)

Anshul Rai, et al. Use of Kerrison Rongeur for safe and effective removal of bone in temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Oral Maxillofac Surg 22(1):115–116(2018)

C.Chossegras , L.Guyot . Full thickness graft interposition after temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 28:330, (1999)

Zhou Lei. Auricular cartilage graft interposition after temporomandibular joint ankylosis surgery in children. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 60:985, (2002)

S S Feinberg, P E Larson. The use of pedicled temporalis muscle pericranial flap for replacement of the TMJ disc. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 47: 142-6(1989)

Erdal Erdem, Alper Alkan. The use of acrylic marbles for interpositional arthroplasty in the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: Follow up of 47 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 30:32, (2001)

Vikas Aneja et al. Interpositional Gap Arthroplasty by Versatile Pedicled Temporalis Myofascial Flap in the Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis - A Case Series Study. J Clin Diagn Res.; 10: ZR01-ZR04(2016)

Arun Majumdar, Roger Bainton. Suture of temporalis fascia and muscle flaps in temporomandibular joint surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 42:357 9(2004)

Bipin Ashok Bulgannawar et al.Use of Temporalis Fascia as an Interpositional Arthroplasty in Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: Analysis of 8 Cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:1031-1035, (2011)

Vijay Ebenezer, R Balakrishnan. The Temporalis Fascia and Muscle Flap in TMJ Ankylosis Surgery. Indian J Multidiscip Dent.; 1(4): 205-7(2011)

Pankaj Bodra, Anita Sundi. Interposition arthroplasty using temporal fascia flap for TMJ ankylosis. Int J Contemp Med Res. 4(1), (2017)

RB Macintosh, FA Henny. A spectrum of application of autogenous costochondral grafts. J Maxillo-Fat Surg 5257(1977)

WH Ware, SL Brown. Growth center transplantation to remace mandibular condyles. J Maxillo-Fat Surg 9:40, (1981)

AA Figueroa et al. Long-term follow-up of a mandibular costochondral graft. Oral Surg 58:214, (1984)

LM Wolford et al. Comparison of two temporomandibular total joint prosthesis systems. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 61:685, (2003)

Ahmed MM Medra: Follow up of costochondral grafts after release of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joints. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 43:118, (2005)

SE Bond, NR Saeed: Reconstruction of temporomandibular joint by the transfer of the free vascularized second metatarsal. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 42:241, (2004)

J Raveh et al Temporomandibular joint ankylosis: surgical treatment and longterm results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 47: 900–906(1989)

C Chossegros et al Full-thickness skin graft interposition after temporomandibular joint ankylosis surgery. A study of 31 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 28: 330–334(1999)

FK Spijkervet et al. Management of pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: Report of cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 52: 1211–1217(1994)

MM Chidzonga. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis: Review of thirty-two cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg: 37: 123–126(1999)

A Roychoudhury et al. Functional restoration by gap arthroplasty in temporomandibular joint ankylosis: A report of 50 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod: 87: 166–169(1999)

Additional Files



How to Cite

Singhvi, S., Siddiqua, . A. ., Hallur , . N. . H. ., Kothari, C. ., Fatima, S. ., & Zakaullah, S. . (2022). Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis – Our Experience. UNIVERSITY JOURNAL MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AND ORAL SCIENCES, 2(1). Retrieved from